 argument

the inputs to a function; the expressions for each argument follow the function name
 average

a representation of the center, or 'typical' value in a set of numbers, calculated as the sum of those numbers divided by the number of values.
 bar chart

a display of categorical data that uses bars positioned over category values; each bar’s height reflects the count or percentage of data values in that category
 bias

prejudice in favor of or against one outcome, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
 bin

a range that values from a dataset can belong to; there is one bar in a histogram per bin
 Boolean

a type of data with two values: true and false
 box plot

the box plot (a.k.a. boxand whiskerplot) is a way of displaying a distribution of data based on the fivenumber summary: minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum
 categorical data

data whose values are qualities that are not subject to the laws of arithmetic
 comments

messages in the code, generally ignored by the computer, to help people interacting with the code understand what it is doing
 conditional

a code expression made of questions and answers
 confounding variable

an unaccountedfor variable that influences the relationship between variables being analyzed
 contract

a statement of the name, domain, and range of a function
 contract error

errors where the code makes sense, but uses a function with the wrong number or type of arguments
 correlation

a single number somewhere between 1 and +1 that reports the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two quantitative variables (also known as the rvalue)
 data row

a structured piece of data in a dataset that typically reports all the information gathered about a given individual
 data science

the science of collecting, organizing, and drawing general conclusions from data, with the help of computers
 data type

a way of classifying values, such as: Number, String, Image, Boolean, or any userdefined data structure
 dataset

a collection of related information that is composed of separate elements, but can be manipulated as a unit by a computer
 define

to associate a descriptive name with a value
 definitions area

the leftmost text box in the Editor where definitions for values and functions are written
 direction

the relationship between two quantitative variables: either they increase/decrease together or one may increase while the other decreases
 distribution

a description of the number of times or relative probabilities that different quantities occur in a sample
 domain

the type or set of inputs that a function expects
 editor

software in which code can be written and evaluated
 error message

information from the computer about errors in code
 example

shows the use of a function on specific inputs and the computation the function should perform on those inputs
 explanatory variable

any variable that could impact the "response variable", generally plotted on the xaxis of a scatter plot
 form

the shape of a relationship between two quantitative variables: whether the two variables together vary linearly or in some other way
 frequency

how often a particular value appears in a dataset
 function

a relation from a set of inputs to a set of possible outputs, where each input is related to exactly one output
 function definition

code that names a function, lists its variables, and states the expression to compute when the function is used
 grouped sample

a nonrandom subset of individuals chosen from a larger set, where the individuals belong to a specific group
 header

the titles of each column of a table, usually shown at the top
 histogram

a display of quantitative data that uses vertical bars positioned over bins (subintervals); each bar’s height reflects the count or percentage of data values in that bin.
 identifier column

a column of unique values which identify all the individual rows (e.g.  student IDs, SSNs, etc)
 interactions area

the rightmost text box in the Editor, where expressions are entered to be evaluated
 interquartile range

(IQR) is one possible measure of spread, based on dividing a dataset into four parts. The values that divide each part are called the first quartile (Q1), the median, and third quartile (Q3). IQR is calculated as Q3 minus Q1.
 line of best fit

summarizes the relationship (if linear) between two quantitative variables
 linear regression

a type of analysis that models the relationship between two quantitative variables. The result is known as a regression line, or line of best fit.
 linear relationship

sequences that change at a constant rate, or points forming a straight line on a graph
 maximum

the largest value in a dataset
 mean

a representation of the center, or 'typical' value in a set of numbers, calculated as the sum of those numbers divided by the number of values.
 median

the middle element of a quantitative dataset
 method

a function that is only associated with an instance of a data type, which consumes inputs and produces an output based on that instance
 minimum

the smallest value in a dataset
 mode

the most commonly appearing categorical or quantitative value or values in a dataset
 name

how we refer to a function or value defined in a language (examples: +, *, star, circle)
 null hypothesis

the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations, any observed difference being due to sampling or experimental error.
 operator

a symbol that manipulates two Numbers and produces a result
 outlier

observations whose values are very different from the other observations in the same data set, perhaps due to experimental error. Outliers can also be indicative of data belonging to a different population from the rest of the established samples.
 percentage

a ratio showing the parts per hundred
 pie chart

a display that uses areas of a circular pie’s slices to show percentages in each category
 piecewise function

a function that computes different expressions based on its input
 predictor function

a function which, given a value from one dataset, makes an educated guess at a related value in a different dataset
 programming language

a set of rules for writing code that a computer can evaluate
 purpose statement

a concise, detailed description of what a function does with its inputs
 quantitative data

number values for which arithmetic makes sense
 quartile

each of four equal groups into which a population can be divided according to the distribution of values of a particular variable.
 r

a number between −1 and 1 that measures the direction and strength of a linear relationship between two quantitative variables (also known as correlation value)
 random sample

a subset of individuals chosen from a larger set, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen
 range

the type or set of outputs that a function produces
 range of a dataset

the distance between minimum and maximum values
 ratio

the relative sizes of two or more values
 response variable

the variable in a relationship that is presumed to be affected by the explanatory variable, generally plotted on the yaxis of a scatter plot
 sample

a set of individuals or objects collected or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure
 sample size

the number of participants or observations included in a study
 scatter plot

a display of the relationship between two quantitative variables, graphing each explanatory value on the x axis and the accompanying response on the y axis
 selection bias

the nonrandom selection of individuals, groups, or data
 shape

The aspect of a dataset  visible in a histogram or box plot  that describes which values are more or less common.
 skew

lack of balance in a dataset’s shape, arising from more values that are unusually low or high. Such values tend to trail off, rather than be separated by a gap (as with outliers).
 skewed left

A distribution is skewed left if there are a few values that are fairly low compared to the others. A histogram of data that is skewed left will have a clump of taller bars on the right, with smaller ones trailing off to the left, like the shape of the toes on a left foot.
 skewed right

A distribution is skewed right if there are a few values that are fairly high compared to the bulk of data values. A histogram of data that is skewed right will have a clump of taller bars on the left, with smaller ones trailing off to the right, like the shape of the toes on a right foot.
 slope

the steepness of a straight line on a graph
 spread

the extent to which values in a dataset vary, either from one another or from the center
 standard deviation

a number that measures spread of a data set using the typical distance of values from their mean
 statistical inference

using information from a sample to draw conclusions about the larger population from which the sample was taken
 strength

of a relationship between two quantitative variables: how much the value of one variable tells us about the value of the other
 symmetric

A symmetric distribution has a balanced shape, showing that it’s just as likely for the variable to take lower values as higher values.
 syntax error

errors where the computer cannot make sense of the code (e.g.  missing commas, missing parentheses, unclosed strings)
 threats to validity

factors that can undermine the conclusion of a study
 value

a specific piece of data, like 5 or "hello"
 variable

a name or symbol that stands for some value or expression, often a value or expression that changes
 yintercept

the point where a line or curve crosses the yaxis of a graph