argument

the inputs to a function; expressions for arguments follow the name of a function

bar chart

a display of categorical data that uses bars positioned over category values; each bar’s height reflects the count or percentage of data values in that category

Boolean

a type of data with two values: true and false

box plot

the box plot (a.k.a. box-and whisker-plot) is a way of displaying a distribution of data based on the five-number summary: minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum

categorical data

data whose values are qualities that are not subject to the laws of arithmetic.

contract

a statement of the name, domain, and range of a function

contract error

errors where the code makes sense, but uses a function with the wrong number or type of arguments

data row

a structured piece of data in a dataset that typically reports all the information gathered about a given individual

data science

the science of collecting, organizing, and drawing general conclusions from data, with the help of computers

data types

a way of classifying values, such as: Number, String, Image, Boolean, or any user-defined data structure

definitions area

the left-most text box in the Editor where definitions for values and functions are written

domain

the type or set of inputs that a function expects

editor

software in which you can write and evaluate code

error message

information from the computer about errors in code

example

shows the use of a function on specific inputs and the computation the function should perform on those inputs

explanatory variable

the variable in a relationship that is presumed to impact the other variable

form

of a relationship between two quantitative variables: whether the two variables together vary linearly or in some other way

frequency

how often a particular value appears in a dataset

function

a mathematical object that consumes inputs and produces an output

function definition

code that names a function, lists its variables, and states the expression to compute when the function is used

grouped sample

a non-random subset of individuals chosen from a larger set, where the individuals belong to a specific group

the titles of each column of a table, usually shown at the top

histogram

a display of quantitative data that uses vertical bars positioned over bins (sub-intervals); each bar’s height reflects the count or percentage of data values in that bin.

identifier column

a column of unique values which identify all the individual rows (e.g. - student IDs, SSNs, etc)

interactions area

the right-most text box in the Editor, where expressions are entered to evaluate

interquartile range

(IQR) is one possible measure of spread, based on dividing a dataset into four parts. The values that divide each part are called the first quartile (Q1), the median, and third quartile (Q3). IQR is calculated as Q3 minus Q1.

line of best fit

summarizes the relationship (if linear) between two quantitative variables

linear regression

modeling the relationship between two quantitative variables using a straight line

mean

average, calculated as the sum of values divided by the number of values

median

the middle element of a quantitative dataset

method

a function that is only associated with an instance of a datatype, which consumes inputs and produces an output based on that instance

mode

the most commonly appearing categorical or quantitative value or values in a dataset

name

how we refer to a function or value defined in a language (examples: +, *, star, circle)

operator

a symbol that manipulates two Numbers and produces a result

outlier

a data point that is unusually far above or below most of the others

pie chart

a display that uses areas of a circular pie’s slices to show percentages in each category

predictor function

a function which, given a value from one dataset, makes an educated guess at a related value in a different dataset

programming language

a set of rules for writing code that a computer can evaluate

purpose statement

a concise, detailed description of what a function does with its inputs

quantitative data

number values for which arithmetic makes sense

quartiles

three values that divide a dataset into four equal-sized groups

r

a number between −1 and 1 that measures the direction and strength of a linear relationship between two quantitative variables (also known as correlation value)

range

the type or set of outputs that a function produces

range of a dataset

the distance between minimum and maximum values

response variable

the variable in a relationship that is presumed to be affected by the other variable

sample

a set of individuals or objects collected or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure

scatter plot

a display of the relationship between two quantitative variables, graphing each explanatory value on the x axis and the accompanying response on the y axis

shape

The aspect of a dataset that tells which values are more or less common

skew

lack of balance in a dataset’s shape, arising from more values that are unusually low or high. Such values tend to trail off, rather than be separated by a gap (as with outliers).

skewed left

A distribution is skewed left if there are a few values that are fairly low compared to the bulk of data values. A display of the data will show a longer tail to the left.

skewed right

A distribution is skewed right if there are a few values that are fairly high compared to the bulk of data values. A display of the data will show a longer tail to the right.

the extent to which values in a dataset vary, either from one another or from the center

statistical inference

using information from a sample to draw conclusions about the larger population from which the sample was taken

symmetric

A symmetric distribution has a balanced shape, showing that it’s just as likely for the variable to take lower values as higher values.

syntax

the set of rules that defines a language, whether it be spoken, written, or programmed.

syntax error

errors where the computer cannot make sense of the code (e.g. - missing commas, parentheses, unclosed strings)

threats to validity

factors that can undermine the conclusion of a study

variable

a letter or symbol that stands in for a value or expression