 argument

the inputs to a function; expressions for arguments follow the name of a function
 bar chart

a display of categorical data that uses bars positioned over category values; each bar’s height reflects the count or percentage of data values in that category
 Boolean

a type of data with two values: true and false
 box plot

the box plot (a.k.a. boxand whiskerplot) is a way of displaying a distribution of data based on the fivenumber summary: minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum
 categorical data

data whose values are qualities that are not subject to the laws of arithmetic.
 contract

a statement of the name, domain, and range of a function
 contract error

errors where the code makes sense, but uses a function with the wrong number or type of arguments
 data row

a structured piece of data in a dataset that typically reports all the information gathered about a given individual
 data science

the science of collecting, organizing, and drawing general conclusions from data, with the help of computers
 data types

a way of classifying values, such as: Number, String, Image, Boolean, or any userdefined data structure
 definitions area

the leftmost text box in the Editor where definitions for values and functions are written
 domain

the type or set of inputs that a function expects
 editor

software in which you can write and evaluate code
 error message

information from the computer about errors in code
 example

shows the use of a function on specific inputs and the computation the function should perform on those inputs
 explanatory variable

the variable in a relationship that is presumed to impact the other variable
 form

of a relationship between two quantitative variables: whether the two variables together vary linearly or in some other way
 frequency

how often a particular value appears in a dataset
 function

a mathematical object that consumes inputs and produces an output
 function definition

code that names a function, lists its variables, and states the expression to compute when the function is used
 grouped sample

a nonrandom subset of individuals chosen from a larger set, where the individuals belong to a specific group
 header

the titles of each column of a table, usually shown at the top
 histogram

a display of quantitative data that uses vertical bars positioned over bins (subintervals); each bar’s height reflects the count or percentage of data values in that bin.
 identifier column

a column of unique values which identify all the individual rows (e.g.  student IDs, SSNs, etc)
 interactions area

the rightmost text box in the Editor, where expressions are entered to evaluate
 interquartile range

(IQR) is one possible measure of spread, based on dividing a dataset into four parts. The values that divide each part are called the first quartile (Q1), the median, and third quartile (Q3). IQR is calculated as Q3 minus Q1.
 line of best fit

summarizes the relationship (if linear) between two quantitative variables
 linear regression

modeling the relationship between two quantitative variables using a straight line
 mean

average, calculated as the sum of values divided by the number of values
 median

the middle element of a quantitative dataset
 method

a function that is only associated with an instance of a datatype, which consumes inputs and produces an output based on that instance
 mode

the most commonly appearing categorical or quantitative value or values in a dataset
 name

how we refer to a function or value defined in a language (examples: +, *, star, circle)
 operator

a symbol that manipulates two Numbers and produces a result
 outlier

a data point that is unusually far above or below most of the others
 pie chart

a display that uses areas of a circular pie’s slices to show percentages in each category
 predictor function

a function which, given a value from one dataset, makes an educated guess at a related value in a different dataset
 programming language

a set of rules for writing code that a computer can evaluate
 purpose statement

a concise, detailed description of what a function does with its inputs
 quantitative data

number values for which arithmetic makes sense
 quartiles

three values that divide a dataset into four equalsized groups
 r

a number between −1 and 1 that measures the direction and strength of a linear relationship between two quantitative variables (also known as correlation value)
 range

the type or set of outputs that a function produces
 range of a dataset

the distance between minimum and maximum values
 response variable

the variable in a relationship that is presumed to be affected by the other variable
 sample

a set of individuals or objects collected or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure
 scatter plot

a display of the relationship between two quantitative variables, graphing each explanatory value on the x axis and the accompanying response on the y axis
 shape

The aspect of a dataset that tells which values are more or less common
 skew

lack of balance in a dataset’s shape, arising from more values that are unusually low or high. Such values tend to trail off, rather than be separated by a gap (as with outliers).
 skewed left

A distribution is skewed left if there are a few values that are fairly low compared to the bulk of data values. A display of the data will show a longer tail to the left.
 skewed right

A distribution is skewed right if there are a few values that are fairly high compared to the bulk of data values. A display of the data will show a longer tail to the right.
 spread

the extent to which values in a dataset vary, either from one another or from the center
 statistical inference

using information from a sample to draw conclusions about the larger population from which the sample was taken
 symmetric

A symmetric distribution has a balanced shape, showing that it’s just as likely for the variable to take lower values as higher values.
 syntax

the set of rules that defines a language, whether it be spoken, written, or programmed.
 syntax error

errors where the computer cannot make sense of the code (e.g.  missing commas, parentheses, unclosed strings)
 threats to validity

factors that can undermine the conclusion of a study
 variable

a letter or symbol that stands in for a value or expression