Referenced from lesson Threats to Validity (Spring, 2021)

Every claim below is wrong! Your job is to figure out why by looking at the data.

Data Claim What’s Wrong


The average player on a basketball team is 6′1″.

“Most of the players are taller than 6′.”


Linear regression found a positive correlation (r=0.42) between people’s height and salary.

“Taller people are more qualified for their jobs.”


“According to the predictor function indicated here, the value on the x-axis is will predict the value on the y-axis 63.6% of the time.”


Bar Chart of Pet Ages Bar Chart of Pet Ages🖼Show image

“According to this bar chart, Felix makes up a little more than 15% of the total ages of all the animals in the dataset.”


“According to this histogram, most animals weigh between 40 and 60 pounds.”


Linear regression found a negative correlation (r= -0.91) between the number of hairs on a person’s head and their likelihood of owning a wig.

“Owning wigs causes people to go bald.”

These materials were developed partly through support of the National Science Foundation, (awards 1042210, 1535276, 1648684, and 1738598). CCbadge Bootstrap:Data Science by the Bootstrap Community is licensed under a Creative Commons 4.0 Unported License. This license does not grant permission to run training or professional development. Offering training or professional development with materials substantially derived from Bootstrap must be approved in writing by a Bootstrap Director. Permissions beyond the scope of this license, such as to run training, may be available by contacting